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19 Oct.2008

计算机专业英语:计算机组成原理中英对照 夜晚

作者: 我就是个世界   分类:技术&学习 » 外语学习   出处:本站原创            | |
计算机专业英语:计算机组成原理中英对照

    COMPUTER HARDWARE      计算机硬件

    Computer systems consist of hardware and software. Hardware is the physical part of the system. Once designed,hardware is difficult and expensive to change. Software is the set of programs that instruct the hardware and is easier to modify than hardware.

    计算机系统由硬件和软件组成。硬件是系统的物理部分。硬件一旦设计完毕,要修改是困难的,并且花费也大。软件是指挥硬件的程序集合,比硬件容易修改。  

    Every computer has four basic hardware components:   每台计算机都有如下4种基本硬件部件:  

     • Input devices.                  输入设备

     • Output devices.                 输出设备

     •Main memory.                    主存储器

    Central processing unit(CPU).    中央处理器   

    A PROCESSOR                         处理器   

    A processor is composed of two functional units—a control unit and an arithmetic/logic unit—and a set of special workspaces called registers.
     处理器由两个功能部件(控制部件和算术逻辑部件)与一组称为寄存器的特殊工作空间组成。  

    The Control Unit                 控制部件  

    The Arithmetic and Logic Unit    算术逻辑部件  

    Registers                         寄存器

    MEMORY SYSTEMS                      存储系统   

    Memory Devices               存储器  

    RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORY            随机存储器  

    READ-ONLY MEMORY                只读存储器  

    MAGNETIC DISKS                  磁盘  

    CD-ROMS                          只读光盘  

    MAGNETIC TAPE                     磁带

    INPUT/OUTPUT SYSTEM                输入输出(I/O系统) 

    Programmed I/O                     程序控制I/O 

    Programmed I/O,also known as direct I/O,is accomplished by a program executing on the processor itself to control the I/O operations and transfer the data. 
    程序控制I/O,又称直接I/O,由在处理器上执行的程序去控制I/O操作和传送数据。 

    Memory-Mapped I/O                  存储器映射I/O  

     Memory-Mapped I/O is another form of programmed I/O that maps the device connections to bits in memory address space
     存储器映射I/O是另一种程序控制I/O,它把I/O设备连接映射成存储器地址空间中的位组, 

     Interrupt I/O                    中断I/O 

     Because of the low efficiency of pure programmed or memory-mapped I/O in high-performance system,so interrupt is produced.
     由于对高性能系统来说纯程序控制I/O或存储器映射I/O的效率都很低,所以又出现了中断方式。 

     Coprocessor I/O                  协处理器I/O 

     When the processor is being used to control I/O and move the data,there is a loss of processor efficiency.[8] Thus the idea naturally arises to use a second processor or coprocessor for I/O.  
    当处理器用于控制I/O和传送数据时,其效率下降。因而自然会想到用第二个处理器或协处理器去处理I/O。  

    I/O devices  输入输出设备:   

    1.INTERACTIVE INPUT         交互性输入   

    2.DIRECT INPUT           直接输入   

    3.SPEECH RECOGNITION        语音识别   

    4.SENSOR INPUT           传感器输入   

    5.DISPLAY OUTPUTS          显示输出   

    6.PRINTERS FOR DOCUMENT OUTPUTS  文本打印机

    BUSES AND CONTROLLERS       总线和控制器  分享到QQ空间
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